Supplemental Information for Patient Care Programs
Evidence-Based Guidelines and Sources for Outcomes Measures
Examples of evidence-based guidelines and sources for outcomes measures include:
- Adherence and other measures
Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) Measures
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma
- Anticoagulation services
Chest ‒ Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy 8th Edition – American College of Chest Physicians Guidelines
- Cholesterol management
Guidelines National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Guidelines
- Chronic kidney disease
National Kidney Foundation KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
GOLD Standard for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
- Diabetes care
American Diabetes Association 2012 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for Developing a Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan
- Drug shortages
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Drug Shortages
- Heart failure
American Heart Association Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure
- Hepatitis C
Department of Veteran’s Affairs and National Hepatitis C Program
Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents
Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7)
- Immunization services
American Pharmacists Association Immunization Guidelines
Centers for Disease Control Immunizations Recommendations and Guidelines
- Medication reconciliation across transitions of care
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Medication at Transitions and Clinical Handoffs (MATCH) Toolkit for Medication Reconciliation
- Medication therapy management (MTM) services
Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model. Version 2.0 (American Pharmacists Association and National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation);
The Patient-Centered Medical Home: Integrating Comprehensive Medication Management to Optimize Patient Outcomes (Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative)
- Non-sterile and sterile compounding
U.S. Pharmacopeia Chapters <795> and <797>
- Outcome measures
National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA Measures)
Patient Care Service Delivery
Regardless of the patient care service offered, the practice should have a standardized care process for comprehensive patient-centered services, whether the service delivered is medication therapy management or disease state management. Based on the pharmaceutical care model, the key components of this process are:
The pharmacist will collect the necessary subjective and objective information about the patient in order to understand the relevant medical/medication history and clinical status of the patient.
The pharmacist will assess the data collected and the clinical effects of the patient’s therapy and will identify and resolve problems.
Develop a Plan
The pharmacist will develop patient-centered goals and a care plan in collaboration with the patient and other health care providers.
The pharmacist will implement the care plan in order to achieve the patient’s goals.
The pharmacist will evaluate the outcomes of the patient’s therapy, the effectiveness of the care plan, and modify the plan as needed.
Monitor or Transition
The pharmacist will monitor the patient to ensure goals in the care plan are met or transition the patient to the appropriate health care provider as necessary.
It is important that the practice follows a consistent patient care process which is supplemented by specific evidence-based guidelines and policies and procedures for each service delivered.